Models of abnormality
Figure 2. Second, observational learning occurs when we learn by observing the world around us.
Respondent conditioning. This has an important consequence for treatments based on the biomedical model, as they can be criticised as focusing only on the symptoms of mental disorders and not the causes.
Many of these intrapsychic conflicts involve basic biological instincts, especially sexual ones. We see this in the case of reflexes. Those who support the psychodynamic model, however, claim[ original research?
Behavioral model of abnormality
It is also a lengthy process that would take time and patience. In order to deal with this problem the patient has used ego-defence mechanisms, such as repression or denial. According to Carl Rogers and other leading figures in this movement, people are rational beings, able to make their own choices, and are motivated toward a state of fulfilment. The main cures for psychological illness under this model: electroconvulsive therapy , drugs and surgery at times can have very good results in restoring "normality" as biology has been shown to play some sort of role in psychological illness. List and describe cognitive therapies. This model promotes positivity by encouraging people to take control of their emotions and choices. It has been suggested that this may lead to disproportionate numbers of people from certain groups being diagnosed as "abnormal. It is therefore impossible to find one shared characteristic which can be defined as 'abnormal'. Content that was turned away was said to be repressed by Freud. It basically involves a patient who is given anaesthesia and a muscle relaxant. This may lead to disorders such as conduct disorders in childhood and psychopathic [dangerously abnormal] behavior in adulthood. However, much of the evidence is inconclusive and findings can be difficult to interpret. Treatment would involve desensitising the fear through conditioning techniques.
Another example is having lustful thoughts to a coworker than you cannot express because you are married, and so you are extremely hateful to this person. Drug therapy: Treatment by drugs refers to when patients are prescribed drugs for their illness.
Humanistic model of abnormality
The basic assumption of this approach is that mental events result in behaviour because humans interpret the environment before reacting to it; therefore, abnormal behaviour is the result of our cognitive interpretations. She may believe she is a failure in all aspects of her life and will never be successful again. Examples of abnormality can take many different forms and involve different features, so that, what at first sight seem quite reasonable definitions, turns out to be quite problematical. CBT encourages patients to become aware of their distorted cognitions and negative emotions that result in abnormal behavioural patterns. It attempted to focus more on the individual as a whole person. The model does not explain the success of purely psychological treatments for mental illness. Rosenhan, D. This suggests that drugs are not addressing the true cause of the problem. The behavioral model concerns the cognitive process of learning. Homosexuality was included in the early versions of the DSM, but in most countries it would now be unthinkable to class this as a mental illness. First, the id is the impulsive part that expresses our sexual and aggressive instincts. Relapse is another problem; will the patient fall back to their mental illness if their drug is discontinued? Positivity vs Negativity Strengths of the cognitive model: Evidence has shown that maladaptive faulty thought processes are common in the mentally ill. Since it is based on Freudian theories of the unconscious mind and its conflicts and desires, this therapy focuses on the individual themselves. The focus of treatment is on understanding the disordered thoughts and working with the patient to change these.
There is sometimes an overemphasis on autonomy and individualism, meaning that the importance of support systems is sometimes forgotten. In she was diagnosed with a tumor and was summoned by the Gestapo in to explain anti-Hitler statements she had allegedly made.
It works in a similar way to the DSM, but the disorders are coded e. Likewise, if our action leads to dissatisfaction, then we will not repeat the same behavior in the future.
This is called trial and error learning, or making a response repeatedly if it leads to success.
Biological model of abnormality
This means that our thoughts and feelings determine our behaviour. S ee this link for more. Thus, there is nothing to be gained from searching for internal causes, either psychological or physical[ according to whom? What form do these consequences take? This approach ignores social and cultural factors which have a statistical relationship with mental illness, such as the high rates of depression among poor people. Also, emotional problems would be related to distorted cognitive processes. Eventually, the school bell will ring making the dog salivate. Cognitive model[ edit ] The cognitive model of abnormality focuses on the cognitive distortions or the dysfunctions in the thought processes and the cognitive deficiencies, particularly the absence of sufficient thinking and planning. This future action is an avoidance event. A cognitive psychologist would aim to teach the patient how to reduce negative thoughts and would emphasise the importance of positivity. You likely answered take Tylenol.
based on 41 review